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Paul Kelly
I have sometimes heard it said that the Scots are really Irish. Is this true? I am not an expert on ancient Scottish history but, from the various historical accounts which I have read over the past few years, I now realize that the Lowland Scots probably had more in common with the northern English than they had with the Highland Scots.
The Lowland Scots and the English used to refer to the Highland Scots as the 'Wild Irish'. So who are the Highland Scots?

I understand that in ancient times the part of Scotland to the north of the Forth-Clyde valley was occupied by a mysterious tribe known as the Picts. The part of Scotland to the south of the Forth-Clyde valley was occupied by the Britons - the ancient P-Celtic (Brythonic) (Brittonic) people of England, Wales and Southern Scotland - from whom the island of Britain gets its name.

In the late 6th century, large parts of Northern England and Southern Scotland - though not Wales - were colonized by the Germanic Angles (English), who had been staying in southern and central England since the 5th century. Edinburgh was in fact given its name by the Angles. In the 7th century, the Angles even pushed north of the Firth of Forth into Fife and Angus - lands occupied by Picts.

At the start of the 6th century (c500), a Q-Celtic (Goidelic) (Gaelic) tribe from the north of Ireland called the Scoti migrated and settled in what is now roughly modern day Argyll and drove the Picts from the area. The Scoti (Irish) formed a kingdom in Argyll - including Lorn (Oban), Loch Awe, Cowal, Kintyre and the surrounding islands - called Dal Riata (Dalriada). In fact, it was an extension of the kingdom of Dal Riada which already existed in the north of Ireland. So, by the mid 6th century, the Scottish Highlands were occupied by Picts, with a group of Scoti (Irish) in its Argyll region. It is estimated that the Picts outnumbered the Scoti by at least 5 to 1. Over the coming centuries, the Picts and Scoti (and Vikings - who colonized many of the islands and coastal regions of Scotland at the start of the 9th century - ) would intermarry and become what we call the modern Highland Scots. This was a very slow process. In fact, the Picts and Scoti didn't fully become one people until the mid 9th century and it seems that the Argyll region - Dalriada - had much stronger links with Ireland than it had with the rest of the Scottish Highlands between the 6th and 9th centuries.

There are 2 main reasons why the Scoti and Picts finally united in the mid 9th century. Firstly, they had a common enemy - The Vikings - who had crushed the Picts in the northern Highlands in the early 9th century and who had also seized control of the Dalriadic islands - Arran, Bute, Gigha, Islay, Jura, Colonsay, southern Mull and Iona (the religious centre of the Scoti.) The other main reason was a common Christianity - Irish (Scoti) monks such as St Columba and his successors had been slowly converting the Picts to Christianity. The Scoti would have spoken Old Irish Gaelic. When the Scoti and Picts started intermarrying and becoming a single people, a new language - Scottish Gaelic - evolved. Some Picts also started using the prefix Mac in front of their names as was the custom of the Scoti (Irish). Although the Picts heavily outnumbered the Scoti, the ancient Pictish language eventually disappeared completely (possibly because the Picts associated Christianity with Gaelic.) This has led some historians to say the Picts were absorbed by the Scoti. However, the colourful lifestyle of the Picts was retained in the wearing of Tartan by Highlanders. (The Irish don't wear Tartan.)

Scottish Gaelic and Modern Irish Gaelic are both derived from Old Irish Gaelic - the language of the Scoti and other ancient Irish tribes - and both are classified as Q-Celtic languages (unlike Welsh and Cornish which are classified as P-Celtic languages.) However, in general, Irish Gaelic and Scottish Gaelic are not mutually intelligible. Moreover, in the present day, the Irish Gaelic spoken in Donegal (northwest Ireland) is different from that spoken in Galway (west Ireland) which in turn is different from that spoken in Kerry (southwest Ireland). Similarly the Scottish Gaelic spoken in the northwest Highlands of Scotland is different from that spoken in the southwest Highlands (Argyll). Interestingly, the Scottish Gaelic spoken on the island of Islay is similar to the Irish Gaelic spoken in County Donegal. This might have something to do with the fact that Islay was part of the ancient Scoti (Irish) kingdom of Dalriada.

Finally, unlike in Ireland, Gaelic has never been spoken by the majority of the people in Scotland. The people of southern and east-central Scotland have long spoken a dialect of English known as Lallans and the people from the northeast of Scotland have long spoken a dialect of English known as Doric. Gaelic was the language of the Highlanders, not the Lowlanders, and Lowlanders have always outnumbered Highlanders.

In conclusion, it is certainly true that the Scoti were an Irish tribe who settled in the southwest highlands of Scotland around the start of the 6th century and who gave their name to the modern nation of Scotland. However, there are many other peoples/tribes who have contributed to the ethnic makeup of the modern Scottish people such as the Britons, the Angles (English), the Vikings and of course the Picts. Moreover, in the 12th century, groups of Flemings (Dutch) and Normans (French-English) settled in much of southern, east-central and northeastern Scotland and intermarried with the indigenous Lowlanders.

Other more recent arrivals to Scotland such as the large number of 19th century Irish immigrants and the smaller groups of Italians and East European Jews have also contributed to the ethnic makeup of the modern Scottish people. (And, of course, there have been even more recent arrivals to Scotland than these 3 groups.)

Some experts say the Picts (the original people of Northern Scotland) were a P-Celtic people and were related to the P-Celtic Britons (the original people of England, Wales and Southern Scotland). However, other experts say the Picts were not related to the Britons. They claim the Picts were not even Celtic and that their origins remain a mystery.
valros
Your posts are always interesting to read Paul and I learn something each time--thank you smile.gif

Valros
Paul Kelly
Valros,

Thanks for your kind comments.

Paul
RonD
Nicely done Paul:

If I may just add a further explanation of the difference bewteen the "P" and "Q" celts, and why they are referred as such.

To simpify things, The Gaelic languages, Scottish found in the highlands and islands of Scotland and Cape Breton, Canada, Manx found in The Isle of Man and Irish Gaelic found in the Gaeltacht or western Ireland and is an offical language in Ireland are all "sister" languages and have a common root in Old Irish and are known as the "Q" Celtic.
Their "cousin" languages are the "P" group which include Welsh spoken in Wales, and was spoken in England prior to the arrival of the Saxons, Cornish now dead , but revived in Cornwall and lastly Breton spoken in Brittany, France are again "sister" languages.

An example of the difference of "P" and "Q" can be found in translating the word head . In Scottish Gaelic a member of the "Q" group the word for head is "ceann " often in shown as "kin" in Scottish place names such as Kinloch (head of the Loch) Kincardine (head of the woods) etc. Also it was the name of the first Anglicized Gaelic king of Scotland Malcolm Canmore, Canmore meaning great head. ( Iam not sure if this was a physical attribute or was a reference to a great leader).

In the "P" groups the the word for head in Welsh is "Pen" found in such names as Pendragon or Pengelly ( don't ask me to translate!!)

So you can see where these Celtic languages evolved locally the Gaelic group leaned towards the "K" sound or "Q" and the Bryttonic group leaned to the "P" sound.
Paul Kelly
I mentioned in my introduction to this topic that the Scottish Gaelic spoken in Islay is similar to the Irish Gaelic spoken in Donegal and I said this is probably because Islay was part of the ancient Scoti (Irish) kingdom of Dalriada. However, an additional reason might be the Scottish Gaelic speaking soldiers - called Gallowglasses - who settled in Ireland (mainly Ulster) in the 14th century. Gallowglasses were mercenary soldiers from the western Highlands and Islands of Scotland, imported by Irish clan chiefs mainly in the ancient Irish Gaelic speaking Province of Ulster, to aid in the defence of clan territories. Some of the Gallowglasses did not return to Scotland after fighting and settled amongst the indigenous Irish.

The Scottish Gallowglass settlement in Ulster should NOT be confused with the Scottish Plantation of Ulster. The Gallowglass settlement was much smaller in size and happened in the 14th and 15th centuries, before the 16th century Scottish Reformation. The Gallowglasses were Scottish West Highlanders, Catholic and Scottish Gaelic speaking and those that settled permanently in Ireland were quickly assimilated into the Catholic Irish Gaelic speaking population of Ulster. (In fact, Irish Gaelic was the only language spoken in Ulster in the 14th century.) The 17th century Scottish Plantation of Ulster was on a much larger scale. Moreover, the Planters were English speaking Protestants and came from predominantly the Scottish Lowlands though there were also some Planters from the southern Highlands of Scotland and also from the north of England. The 17th century Protestant Planters and the indigenous Catholic Irish remained largely separate and mixed very little.

Most experts say there were around 20 Gallowglass families that settled permanently in Ireland. The most famous of these are:

Sweeney (MacSweeney) (County Donegal), Coll (MacColl) (County Donegal), McFadden (County Donegal), Rogers (MacRory) (County Tyrone), McSorley (County Tyrone/Fermanagh), McCallion (County Donegal/Derry) and McCabe (County Cavan/Monaghan). These 7 surnames are now considered to be Irish surnames and people in Scotland/Glasgow today with these surnames are almost certainly descendants of 19th century Irish immigrants to Scotland!!!

Moreover, in the present day, there are Catholic Campbells in Ulster who are descended from 14th century Scottish Gallowglass Campbell settlers, particularly in Donegal, Derry and Tyrone. In addition, there are Protestant Campbells in Ulster, descendants of the 17th century Scottish Planters, particularly in Antrim, Down and Armagh. The same 2 things can be said of a few other Highland Scottish surnames such as McDonnell (McDonald), McClean (McLean), McDowell (McDougall), McAllister (McAlister) and McAuley (McAulay).

There were only a few other Gallowglass families that settled permanently in Ireland, other than the 13 that I have already mentioned, such as Sheehy (MacSheehy), McIntyre, McNeill, McGreal, Short (McGirr) and possibly 1 or 2 others.

These Scottish Gaelic speaking Gallowglass settlers might have influenced the Irish Gaelic spoken in the northern counties of Ireland - Ulster - such as Donegal, though I am not sure if their numbers were large enough.

See post #81 of this topic for an updated discussion of Scottish Gallowglass families in Ireland.
RonD
Hi Paul, how about Gallagher which means foriegn soldier.

Also I would think that the reason that Ulster Irish Galeic was similar to scottish Galeic was that they ahd the same root with much marine intercourse over the centuries.
Paul Kelly
Hi rdem.

Gallagher - the most common surname in Donegal - is not considered to be a Gallowglass surname. The Gallowglass families settled in Ireland in the 14th and 15th centuries. The Gallagher surname has been in Donegal since at least the 9th century. Its origins are not known exactly but it is speculated that the name originates from a 9th century Viking (Norse) warrior who helped the Ulster Gaelic chieftains in battle against other Viking invaders to the north of Ireland.

See the last paragraph of post #187 for an updated discussion of the Gallagher surname.

Paul
RonD
That makes sense Paul. Another Gaelic "Stranger ' in Scotland is Galbraith which means British foreigner. By British they mean Brittonic as the Strathclyde Britons who were akin to the welsh.
Also plain foreigner or stranger is covered in Gaelic by such surnames as Gall and Gault.
Paul Kelly
Galbraith is a common Scottish Planter surname in Ulster.
Paul Kelly
County Donegal gets its name from the port town of Donegal
(Dun Na nGall) which literally means 'the fort of the foreigners'.
I understand the foreigners being referred to were the Viking warriors who tried to invade Donegal in the early 9th century. The Vikings were largely repelled from Donegal by the native Gaelic Irish. (The Vikings only colonized the east and southeast of Ireland around Louth, Dublin, Waterford and Wexford.)

The other time I was discussing the Donegal surname Gallagher (O'Gallchobhair in Irish Gaelic) which literally means 'the foreign warrior who has come to help'. I said it is speculated that the Gallagher surname originates from a Viking warrior who helped the Gaelic chieftains repel the Viking invaders of Donegal in the early 9th century. However, I have recently been reading various websites about the Gallagher surname and many of them claim that the Gallagher surname has been in Donegal since at least the 5th century, and that the Gallagher family is of purely Irish Gaelic origin, despite the surname's meaning.

If you do a GOOGLE search for

UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER NEWS RELEASE - MORE IRISH THAN THE IRISH

then you will come across an interesting article about the Viking legacy in Ireland and Genetics (DNA, Y Chromosome, etc.)
Paul Kelly
I recently came across another Gallowglass/Galloglass/Galloglas/Gallowglas surname in addition to the 18 which I have already mentioned. It is the MacGallogly family from County Donegal. The McGallogly or Gallogly surname is often Anglicized to 'English'. I am not sure of the reason for this Anglicisation as the Gallowglasses came originally from Argyll and the southern Inner Hebridean islands - the area of Scotland formerly known as Dalriada.
Paul Kelly
Still on the theme of DNA and the Y chromosome, you should try doing a GOOGLE search for

IRISH KING LEFT A WIDE GENETIC TRAIL - GENETIC GENEALOGY

It makes very interesting reading.

So it seems that the Gallaghers are not descended from a 9th century Viking warrior, but are in fact descended from a 5th century Gaelic King of Ireland, Niall of the Nine Hostages.

Many people are in fact descended from this King, especially in the northwest of Ireland - Donegal, Derry and Tyrone.

And, of course, many people in Glasgow are descendants of 19th century Irish immigrants from the northwest of Ireland, particularly County Donegal.
Paul Kelly
If you do a GOOGLE search for

OXFORD ANCESTORS HIGH KINGS IRELAND

you will come across a similar article to the previous one.
RonD
Paul;

I just got around to reading you the articles on DNA you mentioned. While I don't suppose I share the same gene pool as Niall of the Nine Hostages, I did write to the Ulster Uni asking what the criteria is for particpating in their search. Although my name is Dempsey, from ODempsey ( O Diomasaigh), a Leinster name, there is a small subtribe of MacDempsey ( McGimpsey) from Ulster. The furthest I have gotten back in my Dempsey line is Newry and Dundalk, so who knows.
derick2
Hi Paul, this is a very interesting topic. I wonder if you have any ideas concerning the name Donohue or Donachy being related to Donnachie or Clan Donnachie? Another name found in Argyll and Ulster is Currie.
Paul Kelly
Hi Derick.

Donaghy is an Irish Gaelic surname originating in the Tyrone/Derry region of Ulster. Many of the 19th century Irish immigrants to Scotland came from the north west of Ireland. Most of the immigrants were illiterate and their surnames were usually recorded in a 'Scottish' manner by Scottish officials.
eg Donachy or Donnachie instead of Donaghy.

(See posts #200 #204 and #205 of the topic 'Common Irish Surnames In Scotland'.)

I went to school with a boy with the surname Donnachy and I know he was of Irish descent.

Donohue and McDonagh are also Irish surnames.

Currie is an Argyll surname and I am sure it is a common surname in Ulster due to the 17th century Scottish Plantation of Ulster.

Incidentally, Curry is considered to be an Irish surname.

Paul.
Paul Kelly
Hi rdem

I understand that the Y chromosome is passed from father to son to son to son to son etc in the same way that a surname is passed on through the generations. The Niall of the Nine Hostages Y Chromosome is found in nearly all men with the surnames O'Neill, O'Donnell, Gallagher, Doherty, McLaughlin, Boyle (and quite a few other surnames.)

So if you were born with one of the above surnames then it is highly likely that your father's father's father's father's ..... father was Niall of the Nine Hostages!

rdem, it is true that you probably don't have the Niall of the Nine Hostages Y Chromosome as Dempsey is not one of the surnames mentioned in the articles. However, I am sure you are a descendant of Niall of the Nine Hostages as I remember reading elsewhere that you have Gallagher and O'Donnell ancestors.

It really is a small world!

Paul.
RonD
Correct Paul:

While I may be in the Niall gene pool, it wouldn't show up in y DNA. As I understand the dna from the female doesn't show in male offspring after one generation. Dempsey from O ' Dempsey while a local force from the 11th to the 17th century were originally a sub tribe of O Connor Faly, who claim descent from Rosse Failghe, the oldest son of Cathair Mor a 3rd century high king of Ireland.
marina
i love the irish just as much as the scots


















rdem- i love your wee bit at the bottom biggrin.gif
RonD
Thanks Marina: I' trying to figure out how to put that signature on my e mail accounts too <smile>

The history of Ireland is fascinating, especially pre Norman Ireland.
Paul: You mentioned that the surname Gallagher possibly went as far back as the fifth century. The name as we have mentioned means foriegn soldier . An explanation is possibly since the Irish were so insular, in that every "tribal hieftain" considered himself a king, "righ" in Gaelic, that possibly the "foriegn element referred to non Gaels such as the Formorians who lived in Ireland in pre Celtic times or the Cruithne the Irish version of Picts.
Iain Kennedy
I have had the so-called Niall DNA test done, technically it is called M222 and I am positive for it. My ancestry is from Loch Rannoch. IMHO the Irish origin is still to be proven. There are at least two commercial companies who can provide the test, or the result can be predicted quite accurately by the more common 'STR' y-dna tests. I also run one of the many surname DNA projects around, for the Kennedy name.

On the subject of Scots in Ireland, have a read of 'Scots mercenaries in Ireland' and the tale of Turlough who assembled some 3000 Scottish Highlander men in Strabane, Co. Tyrone in the late 1500s.

As for Dal Riata, some are now questioning the extent to which there was a large scale population replacement by the Irish in 'Scotland'. Chief amongst those arguing this is Dr. Ewan Campbell of Glasgow University archaeology department. He will be doing a talk on Dal Riata at Ayr in mid December which I hope to get over to.

Iain Kennedy
Dowanhill
Kennedy DNA and genealogy study
Paul Kelly
Hi Iain.

I remember watching a TV documentary about the famous Scottish broadcaster Ludovic Kennedy a few years ago. In the documentary Ludovic said he once interviewed the former American President John F Kennedy. Before the interview started JFK asked Ludo if he was an Irish Kennedy. Ludo told JFK that he was a Scottish Kennedy and that he had no connections with Ireland. I got the impression listening to Ludovic Kennedy that the Scottish Kennedy family and the Irish Kennedy family were in NO way related. They just happened to share the same surname!

My understanding is that the Scottish Kennedys are a Lowland Scottish family originating in the Dumfries and Galloway area of southwest Scotland. Ludovic is descended from this family. The Irish Kennedys are a Gaelic Irish family originating in the Leinster and Munster Provinces in the south of Ireland. President Kennedy is descended from that family.

Incidentally, I understand Kennedy is also a common surname in the north of Ireland - Ulster - and most of the Ulster Kennedys are descendants of 17th century Lowland Scottish Protestant Planters from Ayrshire, Dumfries and Galloway.

I am interested to read that you are a Kennedy originating from the Scottish Highlands and that you have the Niall Y chromosome. I am sure that some of the Dalriadic Scoti from the north of Ireland must have brought the Niall Y chromosome to the Scottish Highlands in the 6th century.

Iain, is there a Highland Scottish Kennedy family and are they related to the Lowland Scottish Kennedy family? Given what I understand about the ethnic origins of the Lowland Scots, I think it is highly unlikely that the Lowland Scottish Kennedy family carries the Niall Y chromosome in its male lineage. I know that following the Highland Clearances, quite a number of Lowland Scottish families (including probably some Kennedys) were relocated to the Highlands in an attempt to 'Anglify' the Highlands and rid it of its Gaelic language and culture. It is also possible that some indigenous Highland Scottish families adopted Lowland Scottish surnames such as Kennedy during those years when Highland/Gaelic culture was being suppressed. Being an expert on the Kennedy surname, I would love to hear what you have to say.

Finally, I understand that the Niall Y chromosome is not commonly found in indigenous Highland Scotsmen. The majority of indigenous Highlanders are of Pictish (and Viking) descent in their male lineage as opposed to Dalriadic Scottish descent (of which you appear to be.)

Did you manage to attend the talk on Dalriada in Ayr?

Look forward to hearing from you.


Paul
Paul Kelly
In an earlier post, I was discussing the Scottish mercenary Gallowglass soldiers from the Western Highlands and Islands (mainly Argyll and the Inner Hebrides - the area of Scotland formerly known as Dalriada - ) who went to fight in Ireland in the 13th, 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.

I just want to add that the Gallowglasses who went to Ireland in the 16th century to fight in the armies of the O'Neills and the O'Donnells in Counties Tyrone and Donegal were sometimes referred to as Redshanks because of their practice of going bare legged.
Paul Kelly
In post #5, I mentioned that there were around 20 Scottish Catholic Gallowglass families from the Western Highlands and Islands of Scotland that settled permanently in Ireland (mainly Ulster) in the 14th/15th/16th centuries before the late 16th century Scottish Reformation. I have been researching a bit more about the Gallowglasses and I want to clarify a few things.

The following 10 Galloglas surnames are now considered to be purely Irish surnames. People in Glasgow/Scotland today with these 10 surnames are almost certainly descendants of 19th century Catholic Irish immigrants to Scotland.

Sweeney (originally McSweeney) (Donegal), Coll (originally McColla) (Donegal), McFadden (not to be be confused with the Scottish surname of McFadyen) (Donegal), McCallion (Donegal/Derry), McRory or McCrory (often Anglicised to Rogers/Rodgers) (Derry/Tyrone), McSorley (Tyrone), McGirr (often Anglicised to Short or Shortt) (Tyrone/Armagh), McCabe (Cavan/Monaghan), McGreal (Mayo), Sheehy (originally McSheehy) (Munster)

While some of the Derry/Tyrone McRorys are of Gallowglass origins, the other Derry/Tyrone McRorys are actually descended from a native Gaelic Irish family with the same name.

The next set of 9 Gallowglass surnames are still obviously considered to be Scottish surnames.

Campbell, McNeill, McAllister, McDonald (usually spelt McDonnell in Ireland), McDougall (usually spelt McDowell in Ireland), McCallum (usually spelt McCollum in Ireland), McLean (sometimes spelt McClean in Ireland), McIntyre (sometimes spelt McAteer in Ireland), McAuley (sometimes spelt McCauley in Ireland)

There are Catholics in Ulster today with these 9 surnames who are descendants of 15th century Galloglass settlers. There are also Protestants in Ulster today with these 9 surnames who are descendants of 17th century Scottish Planters. While some of the Catholic Campbells, McCauleys (McAuleys), McAteers (McIntyres) and McCollums in Ulster are of Galloglas origins, the other Catholic Campbells, McCauleys, McAteers and McCollums in Ulster are actually descended from native Gaelic Irish families with the same names. While some of the Protestant McDowells in Ulster are descendants of 17th century Scottish McDougall Planters from Argyll, most of the Protestant McDowells in Ulster are actually descendants of 17th century Scottish McDowall Planters from Galloway. The Catholic McDowells in Ulster are all descendants of 15th century Scottish McDougall Gallowglasses from Argyll and some of the Catholic McDowells changed their surnames to Doyle. Lastly, a significant minority of the people in the Glasgow area today with these 9 surnames are descendants of 19th century Irish immigrants.

By the start of the 17th century (c1600), the number of Scottish Catholic Galloglas mercenary soldiers going to fight in Ireland was in decline, partly because of the Scottish Reformation in the late 1500s. At the beginning of the 17th century, most Scottish Highlanders had become or were becoming Protestants. The Scottish Lowlands were already completely Protestant by the start of the 17th century.

In the first half of the 17th century many British (predominantly Scottish) Protestants were planted in Ulster. Most of these Protestant Planters were from the Scottish Lowlands, particularly Ayrshire, Renfrewhire, Lanarkshire, Galloway, Dumfries and the Borders. In addition, some of the Protestant Planters were from the southern Scottish Highlands, particularly Stirlingshire, Argyll and Kintyre and from the north of England.

The last Scottish Catholic Gallowglass soldier to go and fight in Ireland was Alasdair MacColla in the 1640s. MacColla had been born in the early 1600s on the remote Dalriadic island of Colonsay in the Inner Hebrides off the coast of Argyll. If you do a GOOGLE search for him you will see he was a man who relished warfare. MacColla actually played a major role in the slaughter of some of the 17th century Scottish Protestant Planters in Ulster.

See post #81 of this topic for an updated discussion of Scottish Gallowglass families in Ireland.
Iain Kennedy
Paul,

Yes Ludovic is a 4th cousin of the Kennedy clan chief. You are correct that there is no connection between the Irish and Scottish Kennedies in the traditional genealogy sense. It is starting to look like the Scottish Kennedy main lines are from the 'North west Irish' DNA group which some claim started off in Co. Donegal. The data is open to a certain amount of interpretation. If so then they most likely arrived in Scotland long before the Kennedy surname was adopted in either country so there is no disrepancy.

There is a Highland branch of the Kennedies. According to clan histories it was established as an offshoot in the sixteenth century after an Ayrshire Kennedy fled there. He sought protection from Lochiel and hence they became a sept of Clan Cameron. Confusingly, not long afterwards some of the same people also joined the MacDonalds of Keppoch and so are also considered a sept of Clan Donald. Genealogist Donald Whyte has written that they had started fanning out from Lochaber into north west Perthshire where my own family come from in the mid sixteenth century but I haven't managed to confirm this. I have closely matched the DNA of an Ayrshire Kennedy so to date, everything fits.

It is true that Galloway was not part of Dal Riata. However we have tested one of the landed Kennedy families of Ayrshire and it has the Niall markers.

Since I last posted, Professor Bryan Sykes' book 'Blood of the Isles' has come out. He has studied DNA across Scotland and measured the influx of Dal Riata and the contrast with Pictish DNA. If the subject interests you try and pick up the book - or browse the relevant pages in your local bookshop at least!

Yes I saw Dr. Campbell's talk which was good. It was largely based around his book 'Saints and Sea-kings' which I already have. Again if you are interested, the book is quite cheap and if you give it a read you will have got the lecture, more or less. It wasn't primarily about his theory about the peopling of Dal Riata which has been published elsewhere. Sykes' book came out just after the talk, I mean to write to Campbell about it as it may disprove his theory.


Iain Kennedy
Kennedy study
Paul Kelly
Hi Iain.

Thanks for your reply. I would love to gaet a copy of 'Blood of the Isles'. I doubt I will come across it here in Botswana but I will ask my brother to look for it in Glasgow. What does the book have to say? Any new or suprising developments?

I understand that by the mid 6th century the Kingdom of Dal Riata was composed of 2 main subkingdoms: the Northern Irish Dalriada based in Antrim (the original Dal Riada) and the Scottish Dalriada based in Argyll (formed at the start of the 6th century by Scoti immigrants from the north of Ireland). The Scottish Dalriada was made up of 4 minor subkingdoms:

Cenel Loairn (Loch Awe, Lorn/Lorne (Oban, Dunollie, Benderloch))
Cenel nOengusa (Islay, Colonsay)
Cenel Comgaill (Cowal (Dunoon), Bute)
Cenel nGabrain (Kintyre, Knapdale, Dunadd, Arran, Jura)

The Cenel Loairn and the Cenel nGabrain were the more important of these 4 subkingdoms and some historians actually include the Cenel Comgaill and the Cenel Oengusa in the Cenel Gabrain.

To the north and east of Scottish Dalriada were the Picts. To the southeast of Scottish Dalriada were the Britons and Angles. During the 7th and 8th centuries the Cenel Loairn expanded their territories northwards, seizing control of the Pictish territories of Appin and Lochaber, including Morvern, Ardnamurchan, Glenfinnan, Glen Coe, Ardgour, Morar, Sunart, Moidart, Knoydart and the Isle of Mull. Between the 6th and 9th centuries there was constant warfare between the Angles, Britons, Picts and Dalriadic Scoti. The coming of the Vikings in the 9th century led to the 'absorption' of the Picts by the Scoti (even though it is estimated that the Picts outnumbered the Scoti by at least 5 to 1). At this time, the Cenel Loairn expanded their territories even further north by migrating up the Great Glen to Inverness and Moray (lands occupied by Picts) and the Cenel nGabrain expanded their territories eastwards into Stirlingshire and Perthshire (lands also occupied by Picts). In the 10th century some Cenel nGabrain even expanded southwards into Ayrshire, Lanarkshire and Lothian (lands occupied by Britons and Angles).

Given that some of the Dalriadic Scoti from the north of Ireland probably brought the Niall Y chromosome to the Argyll region of Scotland at the start of the 6th century, I suspect that these later movements of the Cenel Loairn and Cenel nGabrain in the 9th and 10th centuries probably account for the Niall Y chromosome showing up in some unlikely parts of Scotland.

Paul
lindamac
biggrin.gif I have just read these 3 pages of extremely interesting Historical facts of Scotland/Names etc & felt fair nourished & somewhat intrigued in the awesome depth in which these few men have gone ,My deepest respect to you all & I appreciate your information very much cheers Guys wub.gif
Paul Kelly
In an earlier post I said there were around 20 Gallowglass families from the western Highlands and Islands of Scotland that settled permanently in Ireland in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. Recently, I have been trying to find out where exactly in Scotland these Galloglas families originated. It seems that most - if not all - of these families came from southern Argyll (Arran, Bute, Islay, Jura, Colonsay, Gigha, Knapdale, Kintyre), mid Argyll (Loch Awe area), and possibly Mull and Lorn/Lorne (North Argyll area including Oban). There were certainly no Gallowglass families coming from north of Mull and Lorn.

So it seems the Gallowglasses came from the south west Highlands and Islands of Scotland, the part of Scotland which was formerly known as Dalriada. In fact, the majority of the Gallowglasses came from the islands - the southern Inner Hebridean islands off the coast of Argyll.
KiwiScoti
Hi Paul,

Any idea where specifically the 'Sweeney' Gallowglasses originated from in the Highlands/Western Isles ?

And were they 'Suibhne' then ?

Would you believe it, we spent some time around Loch Awe, without being aware of our connections to the area, and also have had family presence on Islay.

many thanks,

Sean
Paul Kelly
Hi Sean.

I understand the Sweeneys came from the Loch Sween area in Knapdale (northern part of the Kintyre peninsula), Southern Argyll. Loch Sween is to the immediate east of the Sound of Jura. It is a very beautiful part of Scotland.

There is evidence that the Sweeney family had been staying in Knapdale since at least the 11th century. They built Castle Sween on the banks of Loch Sween. They were banished from Scotland in the early 14th century by Robert the Bruce and relocated en masse as Gallowglasses to the Fanad Peninsula in northern Donegal. The surname died out in Scotland with their relocation to Donegal. However the Sweeney surname was reintroduced into Scotland in the 19th century by Irish immigrants from mainly Donegal. Sweeney is considered to be an Irish (Donegal) surname. I think 'Suibhne' must be the spelling of the surname in both Irish and Scottish Gaelic.

It is speculated that the Sweeney family came originally from Donegal before settling in Knapdale, so you could say the Sweeneys were returning to their ancestral home of Donegal in the 14th century as Gallowglasses.

Paul
Paul Kelly
The 'Irish' surname of McCoy has recently been brought to my attention. McCoy is the Irish spelling of the Scottish surname McKay. McCoy is a common surname in northeast Ulster (County Antrim in particular). It seems that some of these Ulster McCoys are descendants of 15th century Scottish Catholic McKay Gallowglasses (from Kintyre) while the other Ulster McCoys are descendants of 17th century Scottish Protestant McKay Planters (also from Kintyre). The McCoy surname should not be confused with the native Gaelic Irish McCue (McHugh) surname which is quite common in west Ulster.

Finally, some of the 19th century Irish McCoy immigrants to Scotland had their surnames re-recorded in the Scottish form of McKay.
Guest sandie
hi paul i love your posts i wanted to say something about my dear great granny who was from tipparery ( i still miss her) when i was small and she would be cleaning me up in the tin bath tub in front of our wee fire after i had been playing in the mud in the back - as my hair was long and black and always knotted she would say that i reminded her of the banshees - so every night i got the story of these wild wiman from irland who sat in trees combing their long black hair - and if i didnt sit still while she washed me then she would call for the banshees to come and talk to me - or worse take me back with them - i knew the humour behind the story even at 4 yrs old - ive handed this story down to my own children and they loved it as much as i did- great people the irish are , and what story tellers!
Paul Kelly
I have not yet managed to get a copy of 'Blood of the Isles' by Professor Bryan Sykes but I still hope to one day. However, I have recently been browsing on the net about Bryan Sykes and the book. There are quite a number of articles on the book and its author. It seems Sykes highlights 3 ancient Celtic Peoples of the British Isles: the Q-Celtic Irish (including the Dalriadic Scoti), the P-Celtic Britons (the original people of England, Wales and southern Scotland) and the P-Celtic Picts (the original people of central and northern Scotland). Sykes states that all 3 of these Celtic Peoples - Irish, Britons and Picts - came to the British Isles many centuries ago from the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Potugal). They probably arrived in different migrations and from different parts of Iberia. Sykes also states that people from all parts of the British Isles - including England - are predominantly of Celtic origins. He says the English are descended mainly from the P-Celtic Britons and not from the Germanic Anglo-Saxons. The people of southern Scotland are also descended mainly from the P-Celtic Britons and the people of central and northern Scotland are descended mainly from the P-Celtic Picts. The most P-Celtic part of the British Isles is the north of Wales. The most Q-Celtic part of the British Isles is the west of Ireland.

I have attached 3 interesting articles about Bryan Sykes and his book from the Scotsman newspaper.

http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/news/Were-...nder.2812146.jp

http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/science/DN...leds.2621296.jp

http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/ingenuity/...your.2628147.jp
Paul Kelly
I have recently received and read a copy of 'Blood of the Isles' by Bryan Sykes. It was a very enjoyable read. In my previous post I had said that the most P-Celtic part of the British is north Wales. In fact, I should have said central and southern Wales. Sykes estimates that 85% of men in mid/south Wales have a Celtic Y-chromosome. The 2nd most P-Celtic part of the British Isles is the Grampian (Pictland) region of Scotland where Sykes estimates that 83.5% of men have a Celtic Y-chromosome.

As I had stated in my previous post, the most Q-Celtic part of the British Isles is the west of Ireland. In the west of Ireland in the Province of Connacht (Galway, Mayo, Sligo, etc), Sykes estimates that 98% of men have a Celtic Y-chromosome. In the south west of Ireland in the Province of Munster (Kerry, Cork, Limerick, etc), Sykes estimates that 95% of men have a Celtic Y-chromosome. In the 2 other Provinces of Ireland - Leinster and Ulster - the percentages are lower at 73% and 81% respectively, probably because of the influence of English and Viking settlers in the southeast (Leinster), and Scottish and English settlers in the north (Ulster).

Overall, Sykes estimates that 64% of men in England, 73% of men in Scotland and 83% of men in Wales have a Celtic Y-chromosome. He doesn't give an overall figure for the island of Ireland but based on his figures for the 4 Provinces of Ireland, the percentage of men in Ireland with a Celtic Y-chromosome is probably between 85% and 90%. So Celtic Y-chromosomes are in the majority in all parts of the British Isles, including all the regions of England. The lowest percentage is 51% in the East Anglia region of England.

In Argyll (southwest Highlands of Scotland) - the area of Scotland which corresponds roughly to the former Kingdom of Dalriada - Sykes estimates that 81% of men have a Celtic Y-Chromosome. Of these Argyll Celtic Y-chromosomes, he estmates that around a third of them are Q-Celtic Irish Y-chromosomes with the other two thirds being P-Celtic Pictish Y-chromosomes. Most of the non-Celtic Y-chromosomes in Argyll are of Viking origin, unlike in Grampian and Tayside, where most of the non-Celtic Y-chromosomes are of Anglo-Saxon origin.

In the northwest Highlands of Scotland including the Western Isles (Outer Hebrides and northern Inner Hebrides) and the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland), Sykes estimates that around 70% of men have a Celtic Y-chromosome (overwhelmingly a P-Celtic Pictish Y-chromosome although there are a few Q-Celtic Irish Y-chromosomes, particularly in the Western Isles). The non-Celtic Y-chromosomes in this region are a mixture of Viking and Anglo-Saxon, although the Viking Y-chromosomes clearly outnumber the Anglo-Saxon Y-chromosomes in the Western Isles and especially in the Northern Isles. The Vikings left quite an imprint on the far north of Scotland, especially the Northern Isles. In fact, around a third of the Y-chromosomes on Orkney and Shetland are of Viking origin, the highest proportion of any region in the British Isles.

Sykes also discusses mitochodrial DNA (mDNA for short) which is passed on from mother to daughter to daughter etc relatively unchanged through the generations in the same way that the Y-chromosome is passed on from father to son to son etc relatively unchanged through the generations. He says the mDNA evidence clearly indicates central and northern Scotland's Pictish ancestry. On the mDNA evidence Sykes writes:

"What we have here is the imprint of Scotland's Pictish ancestry, on the maternal side, spread more or less uniformly across the land. The maternal gene pool is more or less the same in Pictland (Grampian, Tayside and Fife), in Argyll and in the (north west) Highlands"

Returning to the Y-chromosome which is only found in men, Sykes writes:

"The Irish Y-chromosome infiltration (into Argyll) is almost certainly the signal of the relocation of the Dal Riata from Ulster to Argyll in the middle of the first millennium (c500)''

''The genetic signal (in Argyll), as far as I can judge, points to a substantial and, by the look of it, hostile replacement of Pictish males by Dalriadan Irish, most of whom relied on Pictish rather than Irish women to propagate their genes"

''On the male side, we can see plainly what must be the Pictish bedrock in Grampian and Tayside, but in Argyll it has been substantially overlain by new arrivals. The Argyll Y-chromosomes.....(which indicates) a 30% to 40% replacement of Pictish by Gaelic Y-chromosomes (in Argyll).''
Paul Kelly
In post #24 of this topic I had mentioned 19 Scottish Catholic Gallowglass families that had settled permanently in Ireland (mainly Ulster) in the 14th/15th centuries. I had first of all mentioned a group of 10 surnames that are now considered to be Irish surnames as these surnames appear to have died out in Scotland after the relocation of these Galloglass families to Ireland. I had then mentioned a 2nd group of 9 surnames which I had said are still obviously considered to be Scottish surnames. On reflection, I think I should have put the McFadden surname in the 2nd group and not in the 1st group. The McFadyen Gallowglasses are said to have moved from Kintyre to Donegal in the 14th century. The surname is spelt McFadden in Ireland. Obviously, the McFadyen surname did not die out in Scotland. Incidentally, while some of the Catholic McFaddens in Ulster are descendants of 14th century Scottish McFadyen Galloglasses, some of them are in fact descended from a native Gaelic Irish family of the same name. In addition there are a few Protestant McFadden families in mainly east Ulster who are descendants of 17th century Scottish McFadyen Planters.

When I started researching Galloglass families, the initial impression I got was that they originated in the Western Isles (Outer Hebrides and northern Inner Hebrides). However, I now know that this is certainly NOT the case. They all seem to have come from southern Argyll (Kintyre, Knapdale and Cowal) and the surrounding islands of the southern Inner Hebrides (Islay, Jura, Colonsay, Gigha, Arran and Bute). In particular, I have been trying to locate the origins of those Galloglass families who relocated to Ireland en masse and whose surnames appear to have died out in Scotland. (ie Sweeney, McCabe, Coll, Sheehy, McGreal, McSorley, McRory, McCallion, McGirr)

In post #30, I mentioned that the Sweeney Gallowglasses originted in Knapdale, north Kintyre and migrated en masse to Donegal in the 14th century. Similarly, the McCabe Galloglasses originated in the Isle of Arran and southern Kintyre and migrated en masse to Cavan/Monaghan in the 14th century. The Coll Gallowglasses originated in Colonsay and the McGreal Galloglasses originated in Gigha. The McSorley Galloglasses were a sept of the McDonalds (of Kintyre and Islay) and originated in Islay. They migrated en masse to County Tyrone in the 14th century. However, the McSorley surname did not die out immediately in Scotland because there were still 2 other McSorley families remaining in Scotland who were NOT related to the Galloglass McSorleys of clan McDonald. These were the McSorleys of Cowall, Argyll and the McSorlies of Lochaber near Fort William. However, by the 16th century the McSorley surname does appear to have died out in Scotland as the Cowal McSorleys adopted the surname Lamont (who were the dominant clan in Cowal) and the Lochaber McSorlies adopted the surname Cameron (who were the dominant clan in Lochaber). (Most Lamonts and Camerons are not descended from these McSorley families but a significant minority of them are.)

Most, if not all of the people in Scotland today with the Gallowglass surnames Sweeney, McCabe, McGirr, McGreal, McSorley, McCallion, McCrory, Sheehy and Coll are descendants of 19th century Catholic Irish immigrants.
angel
thankyou Paul Kelly, a wonderful read.

Angel
KiwiScoti
Thanks Paul,
I'm sure we all appreciate your research.

I know I do !

It's great to know where we Sweeneys originate from and our history, after many centuries wandering in the wilderness.

cheers,

Sean 'from the furthermost corner of the Earth'
Paul Kelly
Thanks Angel and Sean.

In his book 'Blood of the Isles', Professor Bryan Sykes states:

''The Irish Y-chromosome infiltration (into Argyll) is almost certainly the signal of the relocation of the Dal Riata from Ulster to Argyll in the middle of the first millennium (c500).''

It is certainly true that many Irish Scoti from Ulster settled in Argyll around the start of the 6th century and attempted to drive the Picts from the area. Between the 6th and 9th centuries the Scoti and Picts were constantly at war with one another and on several occasions the Picts regained control of much of Argyll.

I think there is a possible additional reason for the 'Irish Y-chromosome infiltration' into Argyll. In the early 11th cenury the King of the northwest of Ireland (the King of Aileach) was Aodh (Hugh) Athlaman Ua Neill. King Aodh Athlaman was a direct descendant of the 4th/5th century High King of Ireland, Niall of the Nine Hostages. The OLDER son of Athlaman is said to be the direct ancestor of the modern O'Neill family of Ulster, and a close cousin of Athlaman is said to be the direct ancestor of the McLaughlin family of Donegal. King Athlaman died in 1033. The YOUNGER son of Athlaman - Prince Aodh Anrathan Ui Neill - moved to Argyll in 1038 where he married the daughter of one of the chiefs in southern Argyll (Cowal, Glassary and Knapdale). Prince Aodh Anrothan had many sons and the following Argyll clans are said to be his direct descendants: the Lamonts of Cowal, the McLachlans of Cowal, the McSorleys of Cowal, the McEwens of Cowal and Knapdale, the McSweeneys of Knapdale and the McNeills of Knapdale and Gigha. (Lamont, McLachlan, McSorley, McEwen or McEwan, McSweeney or Sweeney, McNeill.)

The McSweeneys would eventually return to the northwest of Ireland in the 14th century as Galloglasses and the McSorleys of Cowal would eventually adopt the surname of their larger neighbours in Cowal - the Lamonts - as I mentioned in my previous post. In addition the McEwens of Cowall and Knapdale would eventually adopt the surnames of their larger neighbours - the McLachlans and the Campbells - while those that retained the McEwen/McEwan surname moved to other parts of the Scottish Highlands (and Lowlands). Finally, SOME of the McNeills of Knapdale and Gigha settled in the north east of Ireland as Galloglasses in the 15th century, and according to recent DNA evidence it now seems that the MCNEILL family of Knapdale, Gigha (and Colonsay) in Argyll is not related to the MCNEIL family of Barra in the Outer Hebrides as had been previously assumed.

If these clan histories are true then you would expext many modern Scotsmen with the surnames Lamont, McLachlan (and McNeill) to have an Irish Y-chromosome. In fact, you would expect them to have the Niall Y-chromosome as they should be direct descendants of Niall of the Nine Hostages.
RonD
Hi Paul: Again your posts are extemely interesting. I am presently reading a book I picked up in my holiday in Kentucky. The Origins of the British, A genetic Detective Story: The surprising roots of the English, Irish, Scots and Welsh by Stephen Oppenheimer. The basics of it are that pre Roman "English" (as we know them today) weren't from Celtic stock and that Anglo Saxons only had a 5% impact on their DNA. He uses DNA traces going back to Mesalithic times. I'm being simplistic here and haven't finished the book, even then I'm not sure I will understand it all.
Jim O'D
An enjoyable read
Paul Kelly
In post #35 I said the McSorley Gallowglasses came originally from the Isle of Islay and were a sept of the McDonalds of Kintyre and Islay. It seems that the Sheehy (McSheehy) Galloglasses were also a sept of the McDonalds of Kintyre and Islay and they came originally from Kintyre. In addition the McRory Gallowglasses came originally from the Isles of Arran and Bute and they were also related to the McDonalds of Kintyre and Islay. In fact the McDonnell (McDonald), McSorley, McSheehy, McRory, McAlister and McDowell (McDougall) Galloglasses are all said to be direct descendants of the ledendary Somerled who is discussed in the 'Scotsman' newspaper article attached to post #33. The McDonnell (McDonald) Galloglasses came originally from Kintyre and Islay, the McAllister Galloglasses came originally from Kintyre, and the McDowell (McDougall) Galloglasses came originally from Lorn/Lorne (Oban and Benderloch) in north Argyll. The McDougall surname is spelt McDowell in Ireland, though not all of the McDowells in Ireland are descended from McDougall Galloglasses. Many of the McDowells in Ulster are descended from 17th century Scottish Protestant McDowall Planters from Galloway (see post #24). Similarly not all of the the McAllisters and McDonnells/McDonalds in Ulster are decended from Galloglasses. Some of them are also descended from 17th century Scottish Protestant Planters.
Finally, the McCallion Galloglasses were a sept of the Campbells of central Argyll (Loch Awe area).
Heather
I always understood that a lot of the Irish came from Wales or vice versa.
About four years ago we were on holiday in Sorrento and got speaking to another couple who were from Wales. I was intrigued by the woman right from I first saw her and thought she was Irish, she was the double of my Irish sis-in-law. I could hardly believe the likeness, she was even small like my sis-in-law and when I told her this, she said she did have Irish ancestors.
I have never before seen two people so alike who were un-related to each other, or maybe they would find they are related if they checked their ancestry. This woman and my sis-in-law could have been taken for twins.
My sis-in-law's own name is O'Connor.
Paul Kelly
Continuing with my last post (#41), the MacColla Gallowglasses who settled in Donegal in the 15th and 16th centuries are also said to be related to the McDonalds of Kintyre and Islay. The MacColla (McColl) Galloglasses came originally from the southern Inner Hebridean islands of Colonsay and Islay and also possibly mainland Argyll around Loch Fyne. The MacColla surname in Donegal is usually given in the Anglicised form of Coll. Coll is a common surname in Donegal.
Paul Kelly
In the 15th century a number of Catholic McNeill Gallowglasses from the southern Inner Hebridean islands of Gigha and Colonsay settled in north east Ulster, particularly County Antrim. A number of McNeill Galloglasses from Gigha also settled in north Connacht in the west of Ireland, particularly County Mayo. The McNeill Gallowglasses who settled in Mayo became known by the surname McGreal.

Not all the McNeills in Ulster today are descended from 15th century Scottish Catholic Galloglasses. Some of the Ulster McNeills are descendants of 17th century Scottish Protestant Planters.
Paul Kelly
I have been trying in vain to find out the exact origins of the McGirr Galloglass family. It seems that the McGirrs were one of the earliest Gallowglass families to settle in Ireland in the early 14th century. Their early arrival in Ireland probably accounts for why so little is known about their origins in Scotland. The McGirr (MacAnGhearr) Galloglasses migrated en masse from Scotland to Ulster (Tyrone and Armagh) in the early 14th century. In County Armagh, the McGirr surname was usually Anglicised as Short or Shortt, though McGirr is still commonly found in County Tyrone. MacAnGhearr means 'son of the short man'. One of my great great grandmothers was a Mary Short (McGirr) from Keady, Armagh.

Given what I have learned about the origins of other Galloglas families, I think it is quite likely that the McGirrs were related to the McDonalds of Kintyre and Islay (like so many other Galloglass families), and they most probably originated in southern Argyll (Kintyre, Knapdale, Islay or Arran).

Incidentally, there is a small unrelated McGirr family from Dumfries and Galloway and it seems that a few of the McGirrs in Ulster are descendants of 17th century Scottish Protestant Planters from Dumfries and Galloway. However, the majority of McGirrs (and Shorts) in Ulster - particularly those from Tyrone and Armagh - are undoubtedly descendants of 14th century Catholic MacAnGhearr Galloglasses from southern Argyll.
Paul Kelly
I ended post #41 by saying that the McCallion Galloglasses were related to the Campbells of Argyll. I have been looking further into this. The MacAilin family moved from Argyll to Ireland in the 15th and early 16th centuries to work as Galloglasses for the O'Donnells in County Donegal. The name became Anglicised as McCallion (or McKillen). In the years following the 17th century Scottish Plantation of Ulster some of the McCallions further Anglicised their surname to Campbell or occasionally Allen, which were common Scottish Planter surnames in Ulster. I haven't been able to find any concrete evidence that the 15th century MacAilin Galloglasses were actually related in any way to the Argyll Campbells, other than the fact that some of them adopted the Campbell surname in the 17th/18th centuries. There is no doubt that the McCallion (MacAilin) Galloglasses migrated en masse from Argyll to Donegal in the 15th century but it is open to question whether or not they were related to the Argyll Campbells. They may have in fact been related to the southern Argyll (Kintyre and Islay) McDonalds, like so many other Galloglas families. That would be something as the McDonalds and Campbells have traditionally been bitter rivals in Argyll.

The native Gaelic Irish MacCathmhaoil family originated in south Ulster. In the years following the 17th century Scottish Plantation of Ulster many of them Anglicised their surname to McCaul or McCall, particularly in and around Counties Monaghan and Cavan. However, in County Tyrone the surname was often Anglicised as Campbell. Due to this, the McCauls/McCalls of south Ulster and the Campbells of County Tyrone are considered to be native Irish families. Of course, many of the Campbells and McCalls in Ulster (particularly east Ulster) are descended from 17th century Scottish Protestant Campbell and McCall/McColl Planters and not from these native Irish Campbell and McCaul/McCall families. In addition, as I mentioned in post #43, there is also a Coll family in Donegal who are descendants of 15th/16th century MacColla Gallowglasses from Argyll.

So there are 3 origins for the Campbell surname in Ireland. The native Catholic Irish MacCathmhaoil family of County Tyrone, the 15th century Scottish Catholic McCallion (MacAilin) Galloglass family of Donegal, and the 17th century Scottish Protestant Planters of mainly east Ulster (Antrim and Down).
Paul Kelly
Continuing with my last post, I have just been reading a website about the County Donegal surname O'Dochartaigh or Doherty. The website claims that the McCallions (MacAilins) of Donegal are of mixed ancestry. It says that some of the McCallions are related to the native Donegal O'Doherty family while the other McCallions are of Gallowglass origins. The website also says that the MacAilins/MacCailins of Galloglass origins came to Donegal from Argyll in the early 16th century and were probably related to the Campbells of Argyll. The reason given is that 'MacCailean Mor' has been the title used by the chief of the Campbells of Loch Awe, Argyll since the late 13th century.
Paul Kelly
The true origins of the powerful Campbell clan of Argyll are shrouded in mystery. A popular theory is that the female progenitor of the Campbell clan - Eva O'Duibhne - was a direct descendant of a man of Donegal ancestry called Diarmid O'Duibhne (Dermot O'Deeny) who resided at Loch Awe in Argyll. Eva married Archibald Gillespie Campbell (possibly Cam Beul), the first bearer of the Campbell surname. It is speculated that Archibald was either Anglo-Norman or a Strathclyde Briton. Incidentally, the Deeny or Deeney surname is still found in County Donegal today though sometimes in the Anglicised form of Peoples.

http://www.ireland.com/ancestor/surname
http://www.hoganstand.com/general/Identity/folk.htm

Whatever the true origins of the Campbell surname, the Campbells and the MacDonalds became the 2 most powerful families in Argyll - the McDonalds in southern Argyll (Kintyre, Islay, Colonsay, Arran) and the Campbells in mid Argyll around Loch Awe and later in north Argyll (Lorn/Lorne) around Oban and Benderloch. The McDonalds of southern Argyll are said to be direct descendants of the legendary 12th century Argyll warrior Somerled, who was of mixed Viking and Dalriadic Scottish origins, and from whom many of the Gallowglass families who went to fight in Ireland in the 14th, 15th and early 16th centuries are also descended.

The Campbells and MacDonalds were probably the most numerous and powerful families in the Scottish Highlands. They were also bitter rivals. From their power bases in Argyll, these 2 surnames spread into many other parts of the Scottish Highlands (and even Lowlands). These 2 clans became so powerful that many smaller clans were absorbed into them, both voluntarily and forcibly. In fact, many Scottish families who adopted these surnames had absolutely no connection with the original Campbell and McDonald families of Argyll, by blood or descent.
angel
I enjoy reading your posts, thankyou !.
Paul Kelly
The McCoy (McKay) Gallowglasses from Kintyre and Islay who settled in County Antrim in the 15th century (post #31) are said to be related to the McDonalds of Kintyre and Islay and also to the McNeills of Gigha. In fact, the McKay family of Kintyre and Islay is in no way related to the famous McKay clan from Sutherland in the far north of Scotland.
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